Sir Isaac Newton

Mathematician, Astronomer, and English Scientist


Newton was born on December 25, 1642 in Wools Thorpe, England. Newton grew up on his father's manor with his Mother, Step Father, and maternal Grandmother. A few days before Newton was born, his father died. Therefore, he never met his father and was raised by his maternal grandmother. When he turned the age of 3, his mother remarried to a clergyman. He attended boarding school in Grantham during his younger years. He stayed with a local family near the school and from there he started to excel in science and math.

When Newton was a young boy he never had an interest in his studies or academics. He enjoyed making his own inventions by himself where he stayed with the local family. The family became worried that he was becoming sidetracked from his schoolwork, because the only reason he was living with them is was so he could attend school in Grantham. Some of the devices he made while there included; a mini windmill that could grind down corn and wheat, a sundial, and a water clock that ran by the force of water dropping. At the age of 14, he was sent back home to help his mother with the farm because she could not handle it all by hiself. He was not much help because he read his whole time there, so he was sent back to school. It was from there on that Newton knew he was very interested in science, so the next years he began working in labor to earn his tuition to Cambridge University.
Newton loved attending Cambridge University. Unforunatley he was soon sent home for a year and a half because of an outbreak of plague all throughout England, causing the university to shut down. It was during this time period that Newton found one of his biggest discoveries. He was sitting under a tree in his garden while at his farm. Then out of nowhere an apple fell from the tree and hit him directly on top of the head. At first he was confused and then thought how this apple did such a thing. He thought for a while, and realized that gravity had caused the apple to fall out of the tree.
The Universal Law of Gravitation explains that every particle of matter in the universe attracts to another particle of matter with a force. Eventually, the proportional to the final product of their masses becomes inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The two bodies act along the line joining their centers, which forces the gravitational attraction. Therefore, the force between the two bodies becomes equal. One example of this law is "planets, that constantly orbit around the sun. The black holes are prime example of gravity and can also not be seen. When the stars or any sort of light go near the black holes, we figure out exactly where they are. If any type of light source goes around the perimeter of the black hole, its gravity forces the light to be sucked into it and destroyed."(

A man named Edmond Halley and his fellow partners were discussing what laws of force produced visible motion of planets around the orbit of the sun. None of them could fully understand and solve this problem, so Halley went to Newton. Halley knew that Newton had the answer because Newton had told him about his discoveries many years earlier. Halley travelled to Cambridge to find Newton with the complete answer and truth. Halley told him he should publish his work into a book, but Newton did not want to because he did not want to deal with all of the criticism from other scientists. Eventually Halley convinced Newton to create a book containing all of Newton's laws of motion and theory of gravitation. This book was called, Principia or Principia Mathematica. Halley paid for all the expenses for this book. Even today, "Principia is still considered the greatest contribution in the history of science."(World Book)
Newton developed three laws that have to do with motion and force. Newton's first law deals with inertia; a body in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. A body at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force. "Newton's second law links the strength and direction of a force acting on a body with the body's masse and the resulting acceleration."(Pg.56, World books Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists) Newton's third law explains that for every action that occurs, there is an opposite equal reaction. These three laws signified a new beginning for scientific investigation. NEW PARAGRAPH!! Another very big discovery that Newton made was the secrets of light and color. He learned that the clear transparent light is actually made up of a rainbow like band of many different colors. He discovered this by obtaining a prism and setting it up in the right direction for sunlight to shine down upon it. When the sunlight shined on the prism a variety of colors in a band were showing behind it. He learned that sunlight is filled with many different colors. When these colors are shown upon an object, it can determine the color of that object. An example of this would be if there was a green sweater and sunlight is shined upon it. It looks green becuase it largely defines the green color in the sunlight and makes itself look green. Now if another light was shown upon the sweater and this light did not contain green inside of it, the sweater would not appear green at all. NEW PARAGRAPH!! After he was done with discoveries, new concepts, and theories, Newton played a very big roll in many organazations and societies. In 1689 he became the Cambridge University member of Parliament. Next in 1696 he became the warden of the mint in England. In 1699 he became a member of the Royal Society council and also an associate of the French Academy. He was re-elected into Parliament by the Cambridge University in 1701. That year he decided to leave Cambridge for good and find a nice home in London. Two years later in 1703 he became president of the Royal society and was reelected every year until he died. A huge accomplishment for him was that he was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705. This is one of the highest achievements any man from England can obtain. Then on March 20, 1727 Sir Isaac Newton died. He was burried in Westminister Abbey. NEW PARAGRAPH!! When people talk about Newton they either think about his theories on motion and gravity or they think of the guy who invented calculas. Most people don't know that Newton did not even want to publish his work at first. His friends had to convince him to publish his book because he could not take the criticism of what other scientists would say about his discoveries. He was also a very modest man. He never showed people what he had discovered, but he usually told some friends and family. And most of all he was a very thankful man. He thanked all of his family and friends who helped him make his way through life and he thanked the people that assisted him with his work. The people that helped make this man the famous man he is to this day. The thing I found most interesting about Newton is that when he was a young boy he did not enjoy schoolwork. He liked thinking and discovering new things, but when it came to his academics he was not interested at all. He liked making his own inventions and finding things out by himself. He made some inventions that helped with his farm work. Some of them were; a windmill that could crunch up wheat and corn, a sundial that would show him the time, and a water clock that ran by the force of water dropping. I was just so amazed when I read this becuase he is one of the greatest contributors in science investigation history and I did not expect him to not like his schoolwork.